sede=S S stand
sede=A=O A stand O (up)
sede=CS CS be (CC, adjective, peripheral phrase)
auxiliary V-sede V-ing
goli-sede=S S dwell

Sede means ‘stand’. As an intransitive, the subject is the person or thing standing upright. As a transitive, it acquires a causative meaning, with the object being the person or thing standing and the subject is the cause.

As a copula sede means ‘be’ and expresses identity: CS is CC; attribution: CS is adjective; assocation: CS is with ASSOCIATION=ne; and location: CS is at LOCATION=su. The CC and adjective arguments tend to come before the verb, and are not referenced within the verb phrase. The CS argument is always marked with the A set of pronominal clitics.

As an auxiliary, sede marks progressive aspect.

Sede as a copula and as an auxiliary is restricted to class I, rational animate nouns.

Sede can form a verb phrase with the adverb goli: goli-sede=S which means ‘dwell’.


[#91] Besedi genesa sede deyesace koxodu gelisu.

[#36] Callotoda, yennadana ŋene goli sede sede dullole, dodu kadde kadde nolemona gohogoho nune callo canno sede dullodanace.

[#35] Gehe canno notatomo goli sedewape nikiyele dinine, deyetoda goli sedetoteda ŋehetepene.

[#38] Hadahada wune goli sedetoda ŋehetepene.

[#37] Hadahada wusu ŋehetepene sedetoda, kiŋi nune kaddetoda deyewa wosodu.

[#80] Sedetosa bese madedi genesa.

[#83] Sesamona, “laca lewa yisida sededa yeleda.

[#33] Tene setowa wudu cumu ŋedane, sedetoda Nuwu bede wudune.